The streams widen and bifurcate as they flow seaward, and spread vast quantities of bowlders, sand, and gravel over the country to the right and left, not infrequently invading the forests and burying the still upright trees. The deposits formed by the streams are of the nature of alluvial fans, over which the waters meander in a thousand channels. Where this action has taken place long enough the alluvial fans end in deltas ; but should there be a current in the sea, the debris is carried away and formed into beaches and bars along adjacent- shores. Should these glaciers disappear, it is evident that these great bowlder washes would form peculiar topographic features, unsupported at the apexes, and it might be perplexing to determine from whence came the waters that deposited them. I am not aware that similar washes have been recognized along the southern border of the Lauren-tide glaciers, but they should certainly be expected to occur there. Another very striking difference in the appearance of the glaciers above and below the snow-line is due to the prevalence of debris on the lower portion. The melting that takes place below the snow-line removes the ice and leaves the rocks. In this manner the stones previously concealed in the neve are con-centrated at the surface, and finally form sheets of debris many miles in extent. So far as my observations go, there is nothing to indicate that stones are brought to the surface by any other means than the one here suggested. Upward currents in the ice that would bring stones to the surface have been postulated by certain writers, but nothing sustaining such an hypothesis has been found in Alaska. The moraines on the lower extremities of the Alpine glaciers may frequently be separated into individual ridges, which in many instances would furnish instructive studies ; but in no case has the history of these accumulations been worked out in detail. With the appearance of moraines at the surface come a great variety of phenomena due to unequal melting. Ridges of ice sheathed with debris, glacial tables, sand cones, etc., everywhere attract the attention ; but these features are very similar on all glaciers where the summer’s waste exceeds the winter’s increase, and have been many times described.